Microsoft Toolkit 2.6 BETA 3l
Click Here ->>->>->> https://urlgoal.com/2tiHDg
AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate) inhalation solution is a sterile, clear, colorless solution of the sulfate salt of racemic albuterol, albuterol sulfate. Albuterol sulfate is a relatively selective beta2-adrenergic bronchodilator (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). The chemical name for albuterol sulfate is α1 [(tert-butylamino) methyl]-4-hydroxy-mxylene-α, α'-diol sulfate (2:1) (salt), and its established chemical structure is as follows:
Beta-receptor blocking agents not only block the pulmonary effect of beta-agonists, such as AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) , but may produce severe bronchospasm in asthmatic patients. Therefore, patients with asthma should not normally be treated with beta-blockers. However, under certain circumstances (e.g., prophylaxis after myocardial infarction), there may be no acceptable alternatives to the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in patients with asthma. In this setting, cardioselective beta-blockers should be considered, although they should be administered with caution.
The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from the administration of non-potassium sparing diuretics (such as loop or thiazide diuretics) can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical significance of these effects is unknown, caution is advised in the coadministration of beta-agonists with non-potassium sparing diuretics.
As with other inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists, AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted. It should be noted that paradoxical bronchospasm, when associated with inhaled formulations, frequently occurs with the first use of a new canister or vial.
The use of beta-adrenergic bronchodilators alone may not be adequate to control asthma in many patients. Early consideration should be given to adding anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., corticosteroids).
AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) , like other beta-adrenergic agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, and/or symptoms. Although such effects are uncommon for AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) at recommended doses, if they occur, the drug may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce ECG changes, such as flattening of the T-wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) like all other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.
Large doses of intravenous albuterol have been reported to aggravate preexisting diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis. As with other beta-agonists, inhaled and intravenous albuterol may produce a significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease is usually transient, not requiring potassium supplementation.
In a 2-year study in Sprague-Dawley rats, albuterol sulfate caused a significant dose-related increase in the incidence of benign leiomyomas of the mesovarium and above dietary doses of 2 mg/kg (approximately equivalent to the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) on a mg/m basis). In another study, this effect was blocked by the coadministration of propranolol, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist.
Oral albuterol has been shown to delay pre-term labor in some reports. There are presently no well-controlled studies that demonstrate that it will stop pre-term labor or prevent labor at term. Because of the potential for beta agonist interference with uterine contractility, use of AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) for relief of bronchospasm during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risk.
The expected symptoms with overdosage are those of excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation and/or occurrence or exaggeration of symptoms such as seizures, angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia with rates up to 200 beats per minute, arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, dry mouth, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, insomnia, and exaggeration of the pharmacological effects listed in ADVERSE REACTIONS. Hypokalemia may also occur. As with all sympathomimetic aerosol medications, cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with abuse of AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) . Treatment consists of discontinuation of AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) together with appropriate symptomatic therapy. The judicious use of a cardioselective beta-receptor blocker may be considered, bearing in mind that such medication can produce bronchospasm. There is insufficient evidence to determine if dialysis is beneficial for overdosage of AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) .
The prime action of beta-adrenergic drugs is to stimulate adenyl cyclase, the enzyme which catalyzes the formation of cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The cyclic AMP thus formed mediates the cellular responses. In vitro studies and in vivo pharmacologic studies have demonstrated that albuterol has a preferential effect on beta2-adrenergic receptors compared with isoproterenol. While it is recognized that beta2-adrenergic receptors are the predominant receptors in bronchial smooth muscle, recent data indicate that 10% to 50% of the beta-receptors in the human heart may be beta2-receptors. The precise function of these receptors, however, is not yet established. Controlled clinical studies and other clinical experience have shown that inhaled albuterol, like other beta-adrenergic agonist drugs, can produce a significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, symptoms, and/or electrocardiographic changes. Albuterol is longer acting than isoproterenol in most patients by any route of administration because it is not a substrate for the cellular uptake processes for catecholamines nor for catechol-O-methyl transferase.
Studies in laboratory animals (minipigs, rodents, and dogs) have demonstrated the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death (with histologic evidence of myocardial necrosis) when beta-agonists and methylxanthines are administered concurrently. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. 153554b96e